source: trunk/server/doc/ @ 2068

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1# This document is a how-to for installing a Fedora server.
2# It is semi-vaguely in the form of a shell script, but is not really
3# runnable as it stands.
5# Notation
6# [PRODUCTION] Production server that will be put into the pool
7# [WIZARD]     Semi-production server that will only have
8#              daemon.scripts-security-upd bits, among other
9#              restricted permissions
10# [TESTSERVER] Completely untrusted server
12# 'branch' is the current svn branch you are on.  You want to
13# use trunk if your just installing a new server, and branches/fcXX-dev
14# if your preparing a server on a new Fedora release.
17# 'server' is the public hostname of your server, for SCP'ing files
18# to and from.
21# ----------------------------->8--------------------------------------
22#                       FIRST TIME INSTRUCTIONS
24# [PRODUCTION] If this is the first time you've installed this hostname,
25# you will need to update a bunch of files to add support for it. These
26# include:
27#   o Adding all aliases to /etc/httpd/conf.d/scripts-vhost-names.conf
28#     (usually this is hostname,, h-n,,
29#     scriptsN,, and the IP address.)
30#   o Adding routing rules for the static IP in
31#     /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth1
32#   o Adding the IP address to the hosts file (same hosts as for
33#     scripts-vhost-names)
34#   o Update SSH config at
35#       - server/fedora/config/etc/ssh/shosts.equiv
36#       - server/fedora/config/etc/ssh/ssh_known_hosts
37#       - server/fedora/config/etc/ssh/sshd_config : DenyUsers
38#     (the last part is critical to ensure that rooting one server
39#     doesn't give you root to all the other servers)
40#   o Put the hostname information in LDAP so SVN and Git work
41#   o Set up Nagios monitoring on sipb-noc for the host
42#   o Set up the host as in the pool on r-b/r-b /etc/heartbeat/
43#   o Update locker/etc/known_hosts
44#   o Update website files:
45#       /mit/scripts/web_scripts/home/server.css.cgi
46#       /mit/scripts/web_scripts/heartbeat/heartbeat.php
48# You will also need to prepare the keytabs for credit-card.  In particular,
49# use ktutil to combine the host/ and
50# host/ keys with host/ in
51# the keytab.  Do not use 'k5srvutil change' on the combined keytab
52# or you'll break the other servers. (real servers only).  Be
53# careful about writing out the keytab: if you write it to an
54# existing file the keys will just get appended.  The correct
55# credential list should look like:
56#   ktutil:  l
57#   slot KVNO Principal
58#   ---- ---- ---------------------------------------------------------------------
59#      1    5 host/
60#      2    3 host/
61#      3    2 host/
62#      4    8 host/
64# The LDAP keytab should be by itself, so be sure to delete it and
65# put it in its own file.
67# ----------------------------->8--------------------------------------
68#                      INFINITE INSTALLATION
70# Start with a Scripts kickstarted install of Fedora (install-fedora)
72# Take updates, reboot if there's a kernel update.
73    yum update -y
75# Get rid of network manager (XXX figure out to make kickstarter do
76# this for us)
77    yum remove NetworkManager
79# Make sure sendmail isn't installed
80    yum remove sendmail
82# Check out the scripts /etc configuration
83    cd /root
84    \cp -a etc /
85    chmod 0440 /etc/sudoers
87# Make sure network is working.  Kickstart should have
88# configured eth0 and eth1 correctly; use service network restart
89# to add the new routes from etc in route-eth1.
90    systemctl restart network.service
91    # Check everything worked:
92    route
93    ifconfig
94    cat /etc/hosts
95    cat /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/route-eth1
97# This is the point at which you should start updating scriptsified
98# packages for a new Fedora release.  Consult 'upgrade-tips' for more
99# information.
100    yum install -y scripts-base
101    # Some of these packages are naughty and clobber some of our files
102    cd /etc
103    svn revert resolv.conf hosts sysconfig/openafs nsswitch.conf
105# Replace rsyslog with syslog-ng by doing:
106    rpm -e --nodeps rsyslog
107    yum install -y syslog-ng
108    systemctl enable syslog-ng.service
110# Install the full list of RPMs that users expect to be on the
111# servers.
112rpm -qa --queryformat "%{Name}.%{Arch}\n" | sort > packages.txt
113# arrange for packages.txt to be passed to the server, then run:
114# --skip-broken will (usually) prevent you from having to sit through
115# several minutes of dependency resolution until it decides that
116# it can't install /one/ package.
117    yum install -y --skip-broken $(cat packages.txt)
119# Check which packages are installed on your new server that are not
120# in the snapshot, and remove ones that aren't needed for some reason
121# on the new machine.  Otherwise, aside from bloat, you may end up
122# with undesirable things for security, like sendmail.
123    rpm -qa --queryformat "%{Name}.%{Arch}\n" | grep -v kernel | sort > newpackages.txt
124    diff -u packages.txt newpackages.txt | grep -v kernel | less
125    # here's a cute script that removes all extra packages
126    yum erase -y $(grep -Fxvf packages.txt newpackages.txt)
127    # 20101208 - Mysteriously we manage to get these extra packages
128    # from kickstart: mcelog mobile-broadband-provider-info
129    # ModemManager PackageKit
131# We need an upstream version of cgi which we've packaged ourselves, but
132# it doesn't work with the haskell-platform package which expects
133# explicit versions.  So temporarily rpm -e the package, and then
134# install it again after you install haskell-platform.  [Note: You
135# probably won't need this in Fedora 17 or something, when the Haskell
136# Platform gets updated.]
137    rpm -e ghc-cgi-devel ghc-cgi
138    yum install -y haskell-platform
139    yumdownloader ghc-cgi
140    yumdownloader ghc-cgi-devel
141    rpm -i ghc-cgi*1.8.2*.rpm
143# ----------------------------->8--------------------------------------
144#                      SPHEROID SHENANIGANS
146# Note: Since ultimately we'd like to move away from using per-language
147# package manager and all of these be RPMs, it is of questionable
148# importance how much /good/ automation for these is necessary.
150# Warning: For a new release, we're supposed to check if Fedora has
151# packaged up the RPM.  Unfortunately we don't really have good incants
152# for this.
154# Install the full list of perl modules that users expect to be on the
155# servers.
156    cd /root
157    export PERL_MM_USE_DEFAULT=1
158    cpan # this is interactive, enter the next two lines
159        o conf prerequisites_policy follow
160        o conf commit
161# on a reference server
162perldoc -u perllocal | grep head2 | cut -f 3 -d '<' | cut -f 1 -d '|' | sort -u | perl -ne 'chomp; print "notest install $_\n" if system("rpm -q --whatprovides \"perl($_)\" >/dev/null 2>/dev/null")' > perl-packages.txt
163# arrange for perl-packages.txt to be transferred to server
164    cat perl-packages.txt | perl -MCPAN -e shell
166# Install the Python eggs and Ruby gems and PEAR/PECL doohickeys that are on
167# the other servers and do not have RPMs.
168# The general mode of operation will be to run the "list" command
169# on both servers, see what the differences are, check if those diffs
170# are packaged up as rpms, and install them (rpm if possible, native otherwise)
171# - Look at /usr/lib/python2.6/site-packages and
172#           /usr/lib64/python2.6/site-packages for Python eggs and modules.
173#   There will be a lot of gunk that was installed from packages;
174#   easy-install.pth in /usr/lib/ will tell you what was easy_installed.
175#   First use 'yum search' to see if the relevant package is now available
176#   as an RPM, and install that if it is.  If not, then use easy_install.
177#   Pass -Z to easy_install to install them unzipped, as some zipped eggs
178#   want to be able to write to ~/.python-eggs.  (Also makes sourcediving
179#   easier.)
180# 'easy_install AuthKit jsonlib2 pygit'
181cat /usr/lib/python2.7/site-packages/easy-install.pth | grep "^./" | cut -c3- | cut -f1 -d- > egg.txt
182    cat egg.txt | xargs easy_install -Z
184# - Look at `gem list` for Ruby gems.
185#   Again, use 'yum search' and prefer RPMs, but failing that, 'gem install'.
186#       ezyang: rspec-rails depends on rspec, and will override the Yum
187#       package, so... don't use that RPM yet
188# XXX This doesn't do the right thing for old version gems
189gem list --no-version > gem.txt
190    gem install $(gem list --no-version | grep -Fxvf - gem.txt)
191    # Also, we need to install the old rails version
192    gem install -v=2.3.5 rails
194# - Look at `pear list` for Pear fruits (or whatever they're called).
195#   Yet again, 'yum search' for RPMs before resorting to 'pear install'.  Note
196#   that for things in the beta repo, you'll need 'pear install package-beta'.
197#   (you might get complaints about the php_scripts module; ignore them)
198pear list | tail -n +4 | cut -f 1 -d " " > pear.txt
199    pear config-set preferred_state beta
200    pear channel-update
201    pear install $(pear list | tail -n +4 | cut -f 1 -d " " | grep -Fxvf - pear.txt)
203# - Look at `pecl list` for PECL things.  'yum search', and if you must,
204#   'pecl install' needed items. If it doesn't work, try 'pear install
205#   pecl/foo' or 'pecl install foo-beta' or those two combined.
206pecl list | tail -n +4 | cut -f 1 -d " " > pecl.txt
207    pecl install --nodeps $(pecl list | tail -n +4 | cut -f 1 -d " " | grep -Fxvf - pecl.txt)
209# ----------------------------->8--------------------------------------
210#                       INFINITE CONFIGURATION
212# Create fedora-ds user (needed for credit-card)
213useradd -u 103 -r -d /var/lib/dirsrv fedora-ds
215# Run credit-card to clone in credentials and make things runabble
216python push $server
218# This is superseded by credit-card, but only for [PRODUCTION]
219# Don't use credit-card on [WIZARD]: it will put in the wrong creds!
221#   # All types of servers will have an /etc/daemon.keytab file, however,
222#   # different types of server will have different credentials in this
223#   # keytab.
224#   #   [PRODUCTION] daemon.scripts
225#   #   [WIZARD]     daemon.scripts-security-upd
226#   #   [TESTSERVER] daemon.scripts-test
228# [PRODUCTION/WIZARD] Fix the openafs /usr/vice/etc <-> /etc/openafs
229# mapping.
230    echo "/afs:/usr/vice/cache:10000000" > /usr/vice/etc/cacheinfo
231    echo "" > /usr/vice/etc/ThisCell
232# [TESTSERVER] If you're installing a test server, this needs to be
233# much smaller; the max filesize on XVM is 10GB.  Pick something like
234# 500000. Also, some of the AFS parameters are kind of retarded (and if
235# you're low on disk space, will actually exhaust our inodes).  Edit
236# these parameters in /etc/sysconfig/openafs (This doesn't work in the
237# new systemd world order: try editing the unit file instead.)
238    echo "/afs:/usr/vice/cache:500000" > /usr/vice/etc/cacheinfo
239    vim /etc/sysconfig/openafs
241# Test that zephyr is working
242    systemctl enable zhm.service
243    systemctl start zhm.service
244    echo 'Test!' | zwrite -d -c scripts -i test
246# Check out the scripts /usr/vice/etc configuration
247    cd /root/vice
248    \cp -a etc /usr/vice
250# [PRODUCTION] Set up replication (see ./install-ldap).
251# You'll need the LDAP keytab for this server: be sure to chown it
252# fedora-ds after you create the fedora-ds user
253    ls -l /etc/dirsrv/keytab
254    cat install-ldap
256# Enable lots of services
257    systemctl enable openafs-client.service
258    systemctl enable dirsrv.service
259    systemctl enable nslcd.service
260    systemctl enable nscd.service
261    systemctl enable postfix.service
262    systemctl enable nrpe.service
263    systemctl enable httpd.service # not for [WIZARD]
265    systemctl start openafs-client.service
266    systemctl start dirsrv.service
267    systemctl start nslcd.service
268    systemctl start nscd.service
269    systemctl start postfix.service
270    systemctl start nrpe.service
271    systemctl start httpd.service # not for [WIZARD]
273# Note about OpenAFS: Check that fs sysname is correct.  You should see,
274# among others, 'amd64_fedoraX_scripts' (vary X) and 'scripts'. If it's
275# not, you probably did a distro upgrade and should update
276# /etc/sysconfig/openafs (XXX this is wrong: figuring out new
277# systemd world order).
278    fs sysname
280# Postfix doesn't actually deliver mail; fix this
281    cd /etc/postfix
282    postmap virtual
284# Munin might not be monitoring packages that were installed after it
285    munin-node-configure --suggest --shell | sh
287# Run fmtutil-sys --all, which does something that makes TeX work.
288# (Note: this errors on XeTeX which is ok.)
289    fmtutil-sys --all
291# Ensure that PHP isn't broken:
292    mkdir /tmp/sessions
293    chmod 01777 /tmp/sessions
294    # XXX: this seems to get deleted if tmp gets cleaned up, so we
295    # might need something a little better (maybe init script.)
297# Fix etc by making sure none of our config files got overwritten
298    cd /etc
299    svn status -q
300    # Some usual candidates for clobbering include nsswitch.conf,
301    # resolv.conf and sysconfig/openafs
302    # [WIZARD/TEST] Remember that changes you made should not get
303    # reverted!
305# Reboot the machine to restore a consistent state, in case you
306# changed anything. (Note: Starting kdump fails (this is ok))
308# ------------------------------->8-------------------------------
311# [OPTIONAL] Your machine's hostname is baked in at install time;
312# in the rare case you need to change it: it appears to be in:
313#   o /etc/sysconfig/network
314#   o your lvm thingies; probably don't need to edit
316# [WIZARD/TESTSERVER] If you are setting up a non-production server,
317# there are some services that it won't provide, and you will need to
318# make it talk to a real server instead.  In particular:
319#   - We don't serve the web, so don't bind
320#   - We don't serve LDAP, so use another server
321# This involves editing the following files:
322#   o /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo:0
323#   o /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo:1
324#   o /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo:2
325#   o /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo:3
326       \rm /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-lo:{0,1,2,3}
327#   o /etc/ldap.conf
328#       add: host
329#   o /etc/{nss-ldapd,nslcd}.conf
330#       replace: uri ldapi://%2fvar%2frun%2fdirsrv%2fslapd-scripts.socket/
331#       with: uri ldap://
332#   o /etc/openldap/ldap.conf
333#       add: URI ldap://
334#            BASE dc=scripts,dc=mit,dc=edu
335#   o /etc/httpd/conf.d/vhost_ldap.conf
336#       replace: VhostLDAPUrl "ldap://,dc=scripts,dc=mit,dc=edu"
337#       with: VhostLDAPUrl "ldap://,dc=scripts,dc=mit,dc=edu"
338#   o /etc/postfix/virtual-alias-{domains,maps}
339#       replace: server_host ldapi://%2fvar%2frun%2fdirsrv%2fslapd-scripts.socket/
340#       with: server_host = ldap://
341# to use instead of localhost.
342# XXX: someone should write sed scripts to do this
344# [WIZARD/TESTSERVER] If you are setting up a non-production server,
345# afsagent's cronjob will attempt to be renewing with the wrong
346# credentials (daemon.scripts). Change this:
347    vim /home/afsagent/renew # replace all mentions of
350#   - You need a self-signed SSL cert or Apache will refuse to start
351#     or do SSL.  Generate with:
352    openssl req -new -x509 -keyout /etc/pki/tls/private/scripts.key -out /etc/pki/tls/certs/scripts.cert -nodes
353#     Also make /etc/pki/tls/certs/ca.pem match up (XXX what's the
354#     incant for that?)
356# [TESTSERVER] More stuff for test servers
357#   - Make (/etc/aliases) root mail go to /dev/null, so we don't spam people
358#   - Edit /etc/httpd/conf.d/scripts-vhost-names.conf to have
359#     be an accepted vhost name
360#   - Look at the old test server and see what config changes are floating around
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