]> scripts.mit.edu Git - autoinstalls/wordpress.git/blobdiff - wp-includes/rewrite.php
WordPress 4.3
[autoinstalls/wordpress.git] / wp-includes / rewrite.php
index 116c7f933c2be6e3ec7271becedb7276436dbff0..a2ddc59038081e7864cb9fa102b6e22f5be36b13 100644 (file)
@@ -9,12 +9,13 @@
 /**
  * Add a straight rewrite rule.
  *
- * @see WP_Rewrite::add_rule() for long description.
  * @since 2.1.0
  *
- * @param string $regex Regular Expression to match request against.
+ * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite
+ *
+ * @param string $regex    Regular Expression to match request against.
  * @param string $redirect Page to redirect to.
- * @param string $after Optional, default is 'bottom'. Where to add rule, can also be 'top'.
+ * @param string $after    Optional, default is 'bottom'. Where to add rule, can also be 'top'.
  */
 function add_rewrite_rule($regex, $redirect, $after = 'bottom') {
        global $wp_rewrite;
@@ -22,27 +23,59 @@ function add_rewrite_rule($regex, $redirect, $after = 'bottom') {
 }
 
 /**
- * Add a new tag (like %postname%).
+ * Add a new rewrite tag (like %postname%).
  *
- * Warning: you must call this on init or earlier, otherwise the query var
- * addition stuff won't work.
+ * The $query parameter is optional. If it is omitted you must ensure that
+ * you call this on, or before, the 'init' hook. This is because $query defaults
+ * to "$tag=", and for this to work a new query var has to be added.
  *
  * @since 2.1.0
  *
- * @param string $tagname
- * @param string $regex
+ * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite
+ * @global WP         $wp
+ *
+ * @param string $tag   Name of the new rewrite tag.
+ * @param string $regex Regular expression to substitute the tag for in rewrite rules.
+ * @param string $query String to append to the rewritten query. Must end in '='. Optional.
  */
-function add_rewrite_tag($tagname, $regex) {
-       //validation
-       if (strlen($tagname) < 3 || $tagname{0} != '%' || $tagname{strlen($tagname)-1} != '%') {
+function add_rewrite_tag( $tag, $regex, $query = '' ) {
+       // validate the tag's name
+       if ( strlen( $tag ) < 3 || $tag[0] != '%' || $tag[ strlen($tag) - 1 ] != '%' )
                return;
+
+       global $wp_rewrite, $wp;
+
+       if ( empty( $query ) ) {
+               $qv = trim( $tag, '%' );
+               $wp->add_query_var( $qv );
+               $query = $qv . '=';
        }
 
-       $qv = trim($tagname, '%');
+       $wp_rewrite->add_rewrite_tag( $tag, $regex, $query );
+}
 
-       global $wp_rewrite, $wp;
-       $wp->add_query_var($qv);
-       $wp_rewrite->add_rewrite_tag($tagname, $regex, $qv . '=');
+/**
+ * Add permalink structure.
+ *
+ * @since 3.0.0
+ *
+ * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite
+ *
+ * @param string $name   Name for permalink structure.
+ * @param string $struct Permalink structure.
+ * @param array  $args   Optional configuration for building the rules from the permalink structure,
+ *                       see {@link WP_Rewrite::add_permastruct()} for full details.
+ */
+function add_permastruct( $name, $struct, $args = array() ) {
+       global $wp_rewrite;
+
+       // backwards compatibility for the old parameters: $with_front and $ep_mask
+       if ( ! is_array( $args ) )
+               $args = array( 'with_front' => $args );
+       if ( func_num_args() == 4 )
+               $args['ep_mask'] = func_get_arg( 3 );
+
+       $wp_rewrite->add_permastruct( $name, $struct, $args );
 }
 
 /**
@@ -50,22 +83,45 @@ function add_rewrite_tag($tagname, $regex) {
  *
  * @since 2.1.0
  *
- * @param string $feedname
+ * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite
+ *
+ * @param string   $feedname
  * @param callback $function Callback to run on feed display.
  * @return string Feed action name.
  */
 function add_feed($feedname, $function) {
        global $wp_rewrite;
-       if (!in_array($feedname, $wp_rewrite->feeds)) { //override the file if it is
+       if ( ! in_array($feedname, $wp_rewrite->feeds) ) //override the file if it is
                $wp_rewrite->feeds[] = $feedname;
-       }
        $hook = 'do_feed_' . $feedname;
        // Remove default function hook
-       remove_action($hook, $hook, 10, 1);
+       remove_action($hook, $hook);
        add_action($hook, $function, 10, 1);
        return $hook;
 }
 
+/**
+ * Remove rewrite rules and then recreate rewrite rules.
+ *
+ * @since 3.0.0
+ *
+ * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite
+ *
+ * @param bool $hard Whether to update .htaccess (hard flush) or just update
+ *                      rewrite_rules transient (soft flush). Default is true (hard).
+ */
+function flush_rewrite_rules( $hard = true ) {
+       global $wp_rewrite;
+       $wp_rewrite->flush_rules( $hard );
+}
+
+/**
+ * Endpoint Mask for default, which is nothing.
+ *
+ * @since 2.1.0
+ */
+define('EP_NONE', 0);
+
 /**
  * Endpoint Mask for Permalink.
  *
@@ -157,37 +213,55 @@ define('EP_AUTHORS', 2048);
  */
 define('EP_PAGES', 4096);
 
-//pseudo-places
 /**
- * Endpoint Mask for default, which is nothing.
+ * Endpoint Mask for all archive views.
  *
- * @since 2.1.0
+ * @since 3.7.0
  */
-define('EP_NONE', 0);
+define( 'EP_ALL_ARCHIVES', EP_DATE | EP_YEAR | EP_MONTH | EP_DAY | EP_CATEGORIES | EP_TAGS | EP_AUTHORS );
 
 /**
  * Endpoint Mask for everything.
  *
  * @since 2.1.0
  */
-define('EP_ALL', 8191);
+define( 'EP_ALL', EP_PERMALINK | EP_ATTACHMENT | EP_ROOT | EP_COMMENTS | EP_SEARCH | EP_PAGES | EP_ALL_ARCHIVES );
 
 /**
  * Add an endpoint, like /trackback/.
  *
- * The endpoints are added to the end of the request. So a request matching
- * "/2008/10/14/my_post/myep/", the endpoint will be "/myep/".
+ * Adding an endpoint creates extra rewrite rules for each of the matching
+ * places specified by the provided bitmask. For example:
+ *
+ *     add_rewrite_endpoint( 'json', EP_PERMALINK | EP_PAGES );
+ *
+ * will add a new rewrite rule ending with "json(/(.*))?/?$" for every permastruct
+ * that describes a permalink (post) or page. This is rewritten to "json=$match"
+ * where $match is the part of the URL matched by the endpoint regex (e.g. "foo" in
+ * "[permalink]/json/foo/").
+ *
+ * A new query var with the same name as the endpoint will also be created.
+ *
+ * When specifying $places ensure that you are using the EP_* constants (or a
+ * combination of them using the bitwise OR operator) as their values are not
+ * guaranteed to remain static (especially `EP_ALL`).
+ *
+ * Be sure to flush the rewrite rules - see flush_rewrite_rules() - when your plugin gets
+ * activated and deactivated.
  *
  * @since 2.1.0
- * @see WP_Rewrite::add_endpoint() Parameters and more description.
- * @uses $wp_rewrite
+ * @since 4.3.0 Added support for skipping query var registration by passing `false` to `$query_var`.
  *
- * @param unknown_type $name
- * @param unknown_type $places
+ * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite
+ *
+ * @param string      $name      Name of the endpoint.
+ * @param int         $places    Endpoint mask describing the places the endpoint should be added.
+ * @param string|bool $query_var Name of the corresponding query variable. Pass `false` to skip registering a query_var
+ *                               for this endpoint. Defaults to the value of `$name`.
  */
-function add_rewrite_endpoint($name, $places) {
+function add_rewrite_endpoint( $name, $places, $query_var = true ) {
        global $wp_rewrite;
-       $wp_rewrite->add_endpoint($name, $places);
+       $wp_rewrite->add_endpoint( $name, $places, $query_var );
 }
 
 /**
@@ -197,7 +271,6 @@ function add_rewrite_endpoint($name, $places) {
  *
  * @access private
  * @since 2.6.0
- * @author Mark Jaquith
  *
  * @param string $base The taxonomy base that we're going to filter
  * @return string
@@ -210,6 +283,121 @@ function _wp_filter_taxonomy_base( $base ) {
        return $base;
 }
 
+
+/**
+ * Resolve numeric slugs that collide with date permalinks.
+ *
+ * Permalinks of posts with numeric slugs can sometimes look to WP_Query::parse_query()
+ * like a date archive, as when your permalink structure is `/%year%/%postname%/` and
+ * a post with post_name '05' has the URL `/2015/05/`.
+ *
+ * This function detects conflicts of this type and resolves them in favor of the
+ * post permalink.
+ *
+ * Note that, since 4.3.0, wp_unique_post_slug() prevents the creation of post slugs
+ * that would result in a date archive conflict. The resolution performed in this
+ * function is primarily for legacy content, as well as cases when the admin has changed
+ * the site's permalink structure in a way that introduces URL conflicts.
+ *
+ * @since 4.3.0
+ *
+ * @param array $query_vars Optional. Query variables for setting up the loop, as determined in
+ *                          WP::parse_request(). Default empty array.
+ * @return array Returns the original array of query vars, with date/post conflicts resolved.
+ */
+function wp_resolve_numeric_slug_conflicts( $query_vars = array() ) {
+       if ( ! isset( $query_vars['year'] ) && ! isset( $query_vars['monthnum'] ) && ! isset( $query_vars['day'] ) ) {
+               return $query_vars;
+       }
+
+       // Identify the 'postname' position in the permastruct array.
+       $permastructs   = array_values( array_filter( explode( '/', get_option( 'permalink_structure' ) ) ) );
+       $postname_index = array_search( '%postname%', $permastructs );
+
+       if ( false === $postname_index ) {
+               return $query_vars;
+       }
+
+       /*
+        * A numeric slug could be confused with a year, month, or day, depending on position. To account for
+        * the possibility of post pagination (eg 2015/2 for the second page of a post called '2015'), our
+        * `is_*` checks are generous: check for year-slug clashes when `is_year` *or* `is_month`, and check
+        * for month-slug clashes when `is_month` *or* `is_day`.
+        */
+       $compare = '';
+       if ( 0 === $postname_index && ( isset( $query_vars['year'] ) || isset( $query_vars['monthnum'] ) ) ) {
+               $compare = 'year';
+       } elseif ( '%year%' === $permastructs[ $postname_index - 1 ] && ( isset( $query_vars['monthnum'] ) || isset( $query_vars['day'] ) ) ) {
+               $compare = 'monthnum';
+       } elseif ( '%monthnum%' === $permastructs[ $postname_index - 1 ] && isset( $query_vars['day'] ) ) {
+               $compare = 'day';
+       }
+
+       if ( ! $compare ) {
+               return $query_vars;
+       }
+
+       // This is the potentially clashing slug.
+       $value = $query_vars[ $compare ];
+
+       $post = get_page_by_path( $value, OBJECT, 'post' );
+       if ( ! ( $post instanceof WP_Post ) ) {
+               return $query_vars;
+       }
+
+       // If the date of the post doesn't match the date specified in the URL, resolve to the date archive.
+       if ( preg_match( '/^([0-9]{4})\-([0-9]{2})/', $post->post_date, $matches ) && isset( $query_vars['year'] ) && ( 'monthnum' === $compare || 'day' === $compare ) ) {
+               // $matches[1] is the year the post was published.
+               if ( intval( $query_vars['year'] ) !== intval( $matches[1] ) ) {
+                       return $query_vars;
+               }
+
+               // $matches[2] is the month the post was published.
+               if ( 'day' === $compare && isset( $query_vars['monthnum'] ) && intval( $query_vars['monthnum'] ) !== intval( $matches[2] ) ) {
+                       return $query_vars;
+               }
+       }
+
+       /*
+        * If the located post contains nextpage pagination, then the URL chunk following postname may be
+        * intended as the page number. Verify that it's a valid page before resolving to it.
+        */
+       $maybe_page = '';
+       if ( 'year' === $compare && isset( $query_vars['monthnum'] ) ) {
+               $maybe_page = $query_vars['monthnum'];
+       } elseif ( 'monthnum' === $compare && isset( $query_vars['day'] ) ) {
+               $maybe_page = $query_vars['day'];
+       }
+
+       $post_page_count = substr_count( $post->post_content, '<!--nextpage-->' ) + 1;
+
+       // If the post doesn't have multiple pages, but a 'page' candidate is found, resolve to the date archive.
+       if ( 1 === $post_page_count && $maybe_page ) {
+               return $query_vars;
+       }
+
+       // If the post has multiple pages and the 'page' number isn't valid, resolve to the date archive.
+       if ( $post_page_count > 1 && $maybe_page > $post_page_count ) {
+               return $query_vars;
+       }
+
+       // If we've gotten to this point, we have a slug/date clash. First, adjust for nextpage.
+       if ( '' !== $maybe_page ) {
+               $query_vars['page'] = intval( $maybe_page );
+       }
+
+       // Next, unset autodetected date-related query vars.
+       unset( $query_vars['year'] );
+       unset( $query_vars['monthnum'] );
+       unset( $query_vars['day'] );
+
+       // Then, set the identified post.
+       $query_vars['name'] = $post->post_name;
+
+       // Finally, return the modified query vars.
+       return $query_vars;
+}
+
 /**
  * Examine a url and try to determine the post ID it represents.
  *
@@ -217,18 +405,28 @@ function _wp_filter_taxonomy_base( $base ) {
  *
  * @since 1.0.0
  *
+ * @global WP_Rewrite $wp_rewrite
+ * @global WP         $wp
+ *
  * @param string $url Permalink to check.
  * @return int Post ID, or 0 on failure.
  */
-function url_to_postid($url) {
+function url_to_postid( $url ) {
        global $wp_rewrite;
 
-       $url = apply_filters('url_to_postid', $url);
+       /**
+        * Filter the URL to derive the post ID from.
+        *
+        * @since 2.2.0
+        *
+        * @param string $url The URL to derive the post ID from.
+        */
+       $url = apply_filters( 'url_to_postid', $url );
 
        // First, check to see if there is a 'p=N' or 'page_id=N' to match against
        if ( preg_match('#[?&](p|page_id|attachment_id)=(\d+)#', $url, $values) )       {
                $id = absint($values[2]);
-               if ($id)
+               if ( $id )
                        return $id;
        }
 
@@ -239,11 +437,6 @@ function url_to_postid($url) {
        if ( empty($rewrite) )
                return 0;
 
-       // $url cleanup by Mark Jaquith
-       // This fixes things like #anchors, ?query=strings, missing 'www.',
-       // added 'www.', or added 'index.php/' that will mess up our WP_Query
-       // and return a false negative
-
        // Get rid of the #anchor
        $url_split = explode('#', $url);
        $url = $url_split[0];
@@ -253,61 +446,82 @@ function url_to_postid($url) {
        $url = $url_split[0];
 
        // Add 'www.' if it is absent and should be there
-       if ( false !== strpos(get_option('home'), '://www.') && false === strpos($url, '://www.') )
+       if ( false !== strpos(home_url(), '://www.') && false === strpos($url, '://www.') )
                $url = str_replace('://', '://www.', $url);
 
        // Strip 'www.' if it is present and shouldn't be
-       if ( false === strpos(get_option('home'), '://www.') )
+       if ( false === strpos(home_url(), '://www.') )
                $url = str_replace('://www.', '://', $url);
 
        // Strip 'index.php/' if we're not using path info permalinks
        if ( !$wp_rewrite->using_index_permalinks() )
-               $url = str_replace('index.php/', '', $url);
+               $url = str_replace( $wp_rewrite->index . '/', '', $url );
 
-       if ( false !== strpos($url, get_option('home')) ) {
-               // Chop off http://domain.com
-               $url = str_replace(get_option('home'), '', $url);
+       if ( false !== strpos( trailingslashit( $url ), home_url( '/' ) ) ) {
+               // Chop off http://domain.com/[path]
+               $url = str_replace(home_url(), '', $url);
        } else {
                // Chop off /path/to/blog
-               $home_path = parse_url(get_option('home'));
-               $home_path = $home_path['path'];
-               $url = str_replace($home_path, '', $url);
+               $home_path = parse_url( home_url( '/' ) );
+               $home_path = isset( $home_path['path'] ) ? $home_path['path'] : '' ;
+               $url = preg_replace( sprintf( '#^%s#', preg_quote( $home_path ) ), '', trailingslashit( $url ) );
        }
 
        // Trim leading and lagging slashes
        $url = trim($url, '/');
 
        $request = $url;
+       $post_type_query_vars = array();
 
-       // Done with cleanup
+       foreach ( get_post_types( array() , 'objects' ) as $post_type => $t ) {
+               if ( ! empty( $t->query_var ) )
+                       $post_type_query_vars[ $t->query_var ] = $post_type;
+       }
 
        // Look for matches.
        $request_match = $request;
-       foreach ($rewrite as $match => $query) {
+       foreach ( (array)$rewrite as $match => $query) {
+
                // If the requesting file is the anchor of the match, prepend it
                // to the path info.
-               if ( (! empty($url)) && (strpos($match, $url) === 0) && ($url != $request)) {
+               if ( !empty($url) && ($url != $request) && (strpos($match, $url) === 0) )
                        $request_match = $url . '/' . $request;
-               }
 
-               if ( preg_match("!^$match!", $request_match, $matches) ) {
+               if ( preg_match("#^$match#", $request_match, $matches) ) {
+
+                       if ( $wp_rewrite->use_verbose_page_rules && preg_match( '/pagename=\$matches\[([0-9]+)\]/', $query, $varmatch ) ) {
+                               // This is a verbose page match, let's check to be sure about it.
+                               if ( ! get_page_by_path( $matches[ $varmatch[1] ] ) )
+                                       continue;
+                       }
+
                        // Got a match.
                        // Trim the query of everything up to the '?'.
                        $query = preg_replace("!^.+\?!", '', $query);
 
                        // Substitute the substring matches into the query.
-                       eval("\$query = \"" . addslashes($query) . "\";");
+                       $query = addslashes(WP_MatchesMapRegex::apply($query, $matches));
+
                        // Filter out non-public query vars
                        global $wp;
-                       parse_str($query, $query_vars);
+                       parse_str( $query, $query_vars );
                        $query = array();
                        foreach ( (array) $query_vars as $key => $value ) {
-                               if ( in_array($key, $wp->public_query_vars) )
+                               if ( in_array( $key, $wp->public_query_vars ) ){
                                        $query[$key] = $value;
+                                       if ( isset( $post_type_query_vars[$key] ) ) {
+                                               $query['post_type'] = $post_type_query_vars[$key];
+                                               $query['name'] = $value;
+                                       }
+                               }
                        }
+
+                       // Resolve conflicts between posts with numeric slugs and date archive queries.
+                       $query = wp_resolve_numeric_slug_conflicts( $query );
+
                        // Do the query
-                       $query = new WP_Query($query);
-                       if ( $query->is_single || $query->is_page )
+                       $query = new WP_Query( $query );
+                       if ( ! empty( $query->posts ) && $query->is_singular )
                                return $query->post->ID;
                        else
                                return 0;
@@ -333,121 +547,100 @@ function url_to_postid($url) {
  */
 class WP_Rewrite {
        /**
-        * Default permalink structure for WordPress.
+        * Permalink structure for posts.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
-        * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $permalink_structure;
+       public $permalink_structure;
 
        /**
         * Whether to add trailing slashes.
         *
         * @since 2.2.0
-        * @access private
         * @var bool
         */
-       var $use_trailing_slashes;
+       public $use_trailing_slashes;
 
        /**
-        * Customized or default category permalink base ( example.com/xx/tagname ).
+        * Base for the author permalink structure (example.com/$author_base/authorname).
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $category_base;
-
-       /**
-        * Customized or default tag permalink base ( example.com/xx/tagname ).
-        *
-        * @since 2.3.0
-        * @access private
-        * @var string
-        */
-       var $tag_base;
+       var $author_base = 'author';
 
        /**
-        * Permalink request structure for categories.
+        * Permalink structure for author archives.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $category_structure;
-
-       /**
-        * Permalink request structure for tags.
-        *
-        * @since 2.3.0
-        * @access private
-        * @var string
-        */
-       var $tag_structure;
+       var $author_structure;
 
        /**
-        * Permalink author request base ( example.com/author/authorname ).
+        * Permalink structure for date archives.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $author_base = 'author';
+       var $date_structure;
 
        /**
-        * Permalink request structure for author pages.
+        * Permalink structure for pages.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $author_structure;
+       var $page_structure;
 
        /**
-        * Permalink request structure for dates.
+        * Base of the search permalink structure (example.com/$search_base/query).
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $date_structure;
+       var $search_base = 'search';
 
        /**
-        * Permalink request structure for pages.
+        * Permalink structure for searches.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $page_structure;
+       var $search_structure;
 
        /**
-        * Search permalink base ( example.com/search/query ).
+        * Comments permalink base.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $search_base = 'search';
+       var $comments_base = 'comments';
 
        /**
-        * Permalink request structure for searches.
+        * Pagination permalink base.
         *
-        * @since 1.5.0
-        * @access private
+        * @since 3.1.0
         * @var string
         */
-       var $search_structure;
+       public $pagination_base = 'page';
 
        /**
-        * Comments permalink base.
+        * Comments pagination permalink base.
         *
-        * @since 1.5.0
+        * @since 4.2.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $comments_base = 'comments';
+       var $comments_pagination_base = 'comment-page';
 
        /**
         * Feed permalink base.
@@ -459,16 +652,16 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
        var $feed_base = 'feed';
 
        /**
-        * Comments feed request structure permalink.
+        * Comments feed permalink structure.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $comments_feed_structure;
+       var $comment_feed_structure;
 
        /**
-        * Feed request structure permalink.
+        * Feed request permalink structure.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
@@ -477,42 +670,43 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
        var $feed_structure;
 
        /**
-        * Front URL path.
+        * The static portion of the post permalink structure.
         *
-        * The difference between the root property is that WordPress might be
-        * located at example/WordPress/index.php, if permalinks are turned off. The
-        * WordPress/index.php will be the front portion. If permalinks are turned
-        * on, this will most likely be empty or not set.
+        * If the permalink structure is "/archive/%post_id%" then the front
+        * is "/archive/". If the permalink structure is "/%year%/%postname%/"
+        * then the front is "/".
         *
+        * @see WP_Rewrite::init()
         * @since 1.5.0
-        * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $front;
+       public $front;
 
        /**
-        * Root URL path to WordPress (without domain).
+        * The prefix for all permalink structures.
         *
-        * The difference between front property is that WordPress might be located
-        * at example.com/WordPress/. The root is the 'WordPress/' portion.
+        * If PATHINFO/index permalinks are in use then the root is the value of
+        * {@link WP_Rewrite::$index} with a trailing slash appended. Otherwise
+        * the root will be empty.
         *
+        * @see WP_Rewrite::init()
+        * @see WP_Rewrite::using_index_permalinks()
         * @since 1.5.0
-        * @access private
         * @var string
         */
-       var $root = '';
+       public $root = '';
 
        /**
-        * Permalink to the home page.
+        * The name of the index file which is the entry point to all requests.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         * @var string
         */
-       var $index = 'index.php';
+       public $index = 'index.php';
 
        /**
-        * Request match string.
+        * Variable name to use for regex matches in the rewritten query.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
@@ -538,7 +732,7 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @access private
         * @var array
         */
-       var $extra_rules = array(); //
+       var $extra_rules = array();
 
        /**
         * Additional rules that belong at the beginning to match first.
@@ -549,21 +743,22 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @access private
         * @var array
         */
-       var $extra_rules_top = array(); //
+       var $extra_rules_top = array();
 
        /**
-        * Rules that don't redirect to WP's index.php.
+        * Rules that don't redirect to WordPress' index.php.
         *
-        * These rules are written to the mod_rewrite portion of the .htaccess.
+        * These rules are written to the mod_rewrite portion of the .htaccess,
+        * and are added by {@link add_external_rule()}.
         *
         * @since 2.1.0
         * @access private
         * @var array
         */
-       var $non_wp_rules = array(); //
+       var $non_wp_rules = array();
 
        /**
-        * Extra permalink structures.
+        * Extra permalink structures, e.g. categories, added by {@link add_permastruct()}.
         *
         * @since 2.1.0
         * @access private
@@ -572,115 +767,122 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
        var $extra_permastructs = array();
 
        /**
-        * Endpoints permalinks
+        * Endpoints (like /trackback/) added by {@link add_rewrite_endpoint()}.
         *
-        * @since unknown
+        * @since 2.1.0
         * @access private
         * @var array
         */
        var $endpoints;
 
        /**
-        * Whether to write every mod_rewrite rule for WordPress.
+        * Whether to write every mod_rewrite rule for WordPress into the .htaccess file.
         *
         * This is off by default, turning it on might print a lot of rewrite rules
         * to the .htaccess file.
         *
+        * @see WP_Rewrite::mod_rewrite_rules()
         * @since 2.0.0
         * @access public
         * @var bool
         */
-       var $use_verbose_rules = false;
+       public $use_verbose_rules = false;
 
        /**
-        * Whether to write every mod_rewrite rule for WordPress pages.
+        * Could post permalinks be confused with those of pages?
         *
+        * If the first rewrite tag in the post permalink structure is one that could
+        * also match a page name (e.g. %postname% or %author%) then this flag is
+        * set to true. Prior to WordPress 3.3 this flag indicated that every page
+        * would have a set of rules added to the top of the rewrite rules array.
+        * Now it tells {@link WP::parse_request()} to check if a URL matching the
+        * page permastruct is actually a page before accepting it.
+        *
+        * @link https://core.trac.wordpress.org/ticket/16687
+        * @see WP_Rewrite::init()
         * @since 2.5.0
         * @access public
         * @var bool
         */
-       var $use_verbose_page_rules = true;
+       public $use_verbose_page_rules = true;
 
        /**
-        * Permalink structure search for preg_replace.
+        * Rewrite tags that can be used in permalink structures.
+        *
+        * These are translated into the regular expressions stored in
+        * {@link WP_Rewrite::$rewritereplace} and are rewritten to the
+        * query variables listed in {@link WP_Rewrite::$queryreplace}.
+        *
+        * Additional tags can be added with {@link add_rewrite_tag()}.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var array
         */
-       var $rewritecode =
-               array(
-                                       '%year%',
-                                       '%monthnum%',
-                                       '%day%',
-                                       '%hour%',
-                                       '%minute%',
-                                       '%second%',
-                                       '%postname%',
-                                       '%post_id%',
-                                       '%category%',
-                                       '%tag%',
-                                       '%author%',
-                                       '%pagename%',
-                                       '%search%'
-                                       );
-
-       /**
-        * Preg_replace values for the search, see {@link WP_Rewrite::$rewritecode}.
+       var $rewritecode = array(
+               '%year%',
+               '%monthnum%',
+               '%day%',
+               '%hour%',
+               '%minute%',
+               '%second%',
+               '%postname%',
+               '%post_id%',
+               '%author%',
+               '%pagename%',
+               '%search%'
+       );
+
+       /**
+        * Regular expressions to be substituted into rewrite rules in place
+        * of rewrite tags, see {@link WP_Rewrite::$rewritecode}.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var array
         */
-       var $rewritereplace =
-               array(
-                                       '([0-9]{4})',
-                                       '([0-9]{1,2})',
-                                       '([0-9]{1,2})',
-                                       '([0-9]{1,2})',
-                                       '([0-9]{1,2})',
-                                       '([0-9]{1,2})',
-                                       '([^/]+)',
-                                       '([0-9]+)',
-                                       '(.+?)',
-                                       '(.+?)',
-                                       '([^/]+)',
-                                       '([^/]+?)',
-                                       '(.+)'
-                                       );
-
-       /**
-        * Search for the query to look for replacing.
+       var $rewritereplace = array(
+               '([0-9]{4})',
+               '([0-9]{1,2})',
+               '([0-9]{1,2})',
+               '([0-9]{1,2})',
+               '([0-9]{1,2})',
+               '([0-9]{1,2})',
+               '([^/]+)',
+               '([0-9]+)',
+               '([^/]+)',
+               '([^/]+?)',
+               '(.+)'
+       );
+
+       /**
+        * Query variables that rewrite tags map to, see {@link WP_Rewrite::$rewritecode}.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access private
         * @var array
         */
-       var $queryreplace =
-               array (
-                                       'year=',
-                                       'monthnum=',
-                                       'day=',
-                                       'hour=',
-                                       'minute=',
-                                       'second=',
-                                       'name=',
-                                       'p=',
-                                       'category_name=',
-                                       'tag=',
-                                       'author_name=',
-                                       'pagename=',
-                                       's='
-                                       );
+       var $queryreplace = array(
+               'year=',
+               'monthnum=',
+               'day=',
+               'hour=',
+               'minute=',
+               'second=',
+               'name=',
+               'p=',
+               'author_name=',
+               'pagename=',
+               's='
+       );
 
        /**
         * Supported default feeds.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
-        * @access private
         * @var array
         */
-       var $feeds = array ( 'feed', 'rdf', 'rss', 'rss2', 'atom' );
+       public $feeds = array( 'feed', 'rdf', 'rss', 'rss2', 'atom' );
 
        /**
         * Whether permalinks are being used.
@@ -692,11 +894,8 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @return bool True, if permalinks are enabled.
         */
-       function using_permalinks() {
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure))
-                       return false;
-               else
-                       return true;
+       public function using_permalinks() {
+               return ! empty($this->permalink_structure);
        }
 
        /**
@@ -709,17 +908,12 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @return bool
         */
-       function using_index_permalinks() {
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
+       public function using_index_permalinks() {
+               if ( empty( $this->permalink_structure ) ) {
                        return false;
                }
-
                // If the index is not in the permalink, we're using mod_rewrite.
-               if (preg_match('#^/*' . $this->index . '#', $this->permalink_structure)) {
-                       return true;
-               }
-
-               return false;
+               return preg_match( '#^/*' . $this->index . '#', $this->permalink_structure );
        }
 
        /**
@@ -732,11 +926,8 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @return bool
         */
-       function using_mod_rewrite_permalinks() {
-               if ( $this->using_permalinks() && ! $this->using_index_permalinks())
-                       return true;
-               else
-                       return false;
+       public function using_mod_rewrite_permalinks() {
+               return $this->using_permalinks() && ! $this->using_index_permalinks();
        }
 
        /**
@@ -755,7 +946,7 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @param int $number Index number.
         * @return string
         */
-       function preg_index($number) {
+       public function preg_index($number) {
                $match_prefix = '$';
                $match_suffix = '';
 
@@ -776,27 +967,32 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 2.5.0
         * @access public
         *
+        * @global wpdb $wpdb
+        *
         * @return array Array of page URIs as first element and attachment URIs as second element.
         */
-       function page_uri_index() {
+       public function page_uri_index() {
                global $wpdb;
 
                //get pages in order of hierarchy, i.e. children after parents
-               $posts = get_page_hierarchy($wpdb->get_results("SELECT ID, post_name, post_parent FROM $wpdb->posts WHERE post_type = 'page'"));
+               $pages = $wpdb->get_results("SELECT ID, post_name, post_parent FROM $wpdb->posts WHERE post_type = 'page' AND post_status != 'auto-draft'");
+               $posts = get_page_hierarchy( $pages );
+
+               // If we have no pages get out quick
+               if ( !$posts )
+                       return array( array(), array() );
+
                //now reverse it, because we need parents after children for rewrite rules to work properly
                $posts = array_reverse($posts, true);
 
                $page_uris = array();
                $page_attachment_uris = array();
 
-               if ( !$posts )
-                       return array( array(), array() );
-
-               foreach ($posts as $id => $post) {
+               foreach ( $posts as $id => $post ) {
                        // URL => page name
                        $uri = get_page_uri($id);
                        $attachments = $wpdb->get_results( $wpdb->prepare( "SELECT ID, post_name, post_parent FROM $wpdb->posts WHERE post_type = 'attachment' AND post_parent = %d", $id ));
-                       if ( $attachments ) {
+                       if ( !empty($attachments) ) {
                                foreach ( $attachments as $attachment ) {
                                        $attach_uri = get_page_uri($attachment->ID);
                                        $page_attachment_uris[$attach_uri] = $attachment->ID;
@@ -812,44 +1008,16 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
        /**
         * Retrieve all of the rewrite rules for pages.
         *
-        * If the 'use_verbose_page_rules' property is false, then there will only
-        * be a single rewrite rule for pages for those matching '%pagename%'. With
-        * the property set to true, the attachments and the pages will be added for
-        * each individual attachment URI and page URI, respectively.
-        *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
         * @return array
         */
-       function page_rewrite_rules() {
-               $rewrite_rules = array();
-               $page_structure = $this->get_page_permastruct();
+       public function page_rewrite_rules() {
+               // the extra .? at the beginning prevents clashes with other regular expressions in the rules array
+               $this->add_rewrite_tag( '%pagename%', '(.?.+?)', 'pagename=' );
 
-               if ( ! $this->use_verbose_page_rules ) {
-                       $this->add_rewrite_tag('%pagename%', "(.+?)", 'pagename=');
-                       $rewrite_rules = array_merge($rewrite_rules, $this->generate_rewrite_rules($page_structure, EP_PAGES));
-                       return $rewrite_rules;
-               }
-
-               $page_uris = $this->page_uri_index();
-               $uris = $page_uris[0];
-               $attachment_uris = $page_uris[1];
-
-               if( is_array( $attachment_uris ) ) {
-                       foreach ($attachment_uris as $uri => $pagename) {
-                               $this->add_rewrite_tag('%pagename%', "($uri)", 'attachment=');
-                               $rewrite_rules = array_merge($rewrite_rules, $this->generate_rewrite_rules($page_structure, EP_PAGES));
-                       }
-               }
-               if( is_array( $uris ) ) {
-                       foreach ($uris as $uri => $pagename) {
-                               $this->add_rewrite_tag('%pagename%', "($uri)", 'pagename=');
-                               $rewrite_rules = array_merge($rewrite_rules, $this->generate_rewrite_rules($page_structure, EP_PAGES));
-                       }
-               }
-
-               return $rewrite_rules;
+               return $this->generate_rewrite_rules( $this->get_page_permastruct(), EP_PAGES, true, true, false, false );
        }
 
        /**
@@ -870,14 +1038,13 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return bool|string False on no permalink structure. Date permalink structure.
+        * @return string|false False on no permalink structure. Date permalink structure.
         */
-       function get_date_permastruct() {
-               if (isset($this->date_structure)) {
+       public function get_date_permastruct() {
+               if ( isset($this->date_structure) )
                        return $this->date_structure;
-               }
 
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
+               if ( empty($this->permalink_structure) ) {
                        $this->date_structure = '';
                        return false;
                }
@@ -888,8 +1055,8 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                $this->date_structure = '';
                $date_endian = '';
 
-               foreach ($endians as $endian) {
-                       if (false !== strpos($this->permalink_structure, $endian)) {
+               foreach ( $endians as $endian ) {
+                       if ( false !== strpos($this->permalink_structure, $endian) ) {
                                $date_endian= $endian;
                                break;
                        }
@@ -904,7 +1071,7 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                preg_match_all('/%.+?%/', $this->permalink_structure, $tokens);
                $tok_index = 1;
                foreach ( (array) $tokens[0] as $token) {
-                       if ( ($token == '%post_id%') && ($tok_index <= 3) ) {
+                       if ( '%post_id%' == $token && ($tok_index <= 3) ) {
                                $front = $front . 'date/';
                                break;
                        }
@@ -925,18 +1092,16 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return bool|string False on failure. Year structure on success.
+        * @return false|string False on failure. Year structure on success.
         */
-       function get_year_permastruct() {
-               $structure = $this->get_date_permastruct($this->permalink_structure);
+       public function get_year_permastruct() {
+               $structure = $this->get_date_permastruct();
 
-               if (empty($structure)) {
+               if ( empty($structure) )
                        return false;
-               }
 
                $structure = str_replace('%monthnum%', '', $structure);
                $structure = str_replace('%day%', '', $structure);
-
                $structure = preg_replace('#/+#', '/', $structure);
 
                return $structure;
@@ -951,17 +1116,15 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return bool|string False on failure. Year/Month structure on success.
+        * @return false|string False on failure. Year/Month structure on success.
         */
-       function get_month_permastruct() {
-               $structure = $this->get_date_permastruct($this->permalink_structure);
+       public function get_month_permastruct() {
+               $structure = $this->get_date_permastruct();
 
-               if (empty($structure)) {
+               if ( empty($structure) )
                        return false;
-               }
 
                $structure = str_replace('%day%', '', $structure);
-
                $structure = preg_replace('#/+#', '/', $structure);
 
                return $structure;
@@ -975,10 +1138,10 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return bool|string False on failure. Year/Month/Day structure on success.
+        * @return string|false False on failure. Year/Month/Day structure on success.
         */
-       function get_day_permastruct() {
-               return $this->get_date_permastruct($this->permalink_structure);
+       public function get_day_permastruct() {
+               return $this->get_date_permastruct();
        }
 
        /**
@@ -992,26 +1155,10 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return bool|string False on failure. Category permalink structure.
+        * @return string|false False on failure. Category permalink structure.
         */
-       function get_category_permastruct() {
-               if (isset($this->category_structure)) {
-                       return $this->category_structure;
-               }
-
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
-                       $this->category_structure = '';
-                       return false;
-               }
-
-               if (empty($this->category_base))
-                       $this->category_structure = trailingslashit( $this->front . 'category' );
-               else
-                       $this->category_structure = trailingslashit( '/' . $this->root . $this->category_base );
-
-               $this->category_structure .= '%category%';
-
-               return $this->category_structure;
+       public function get_category_permastruct() {
+               return $this->get_extra_permastruct('category');
        }
 
        /**
@@ -1025,40 +1172,28 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 2.3.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return bool|string False on failure. Tag permalink structure.
+        * @return string|false False on failure. Tag permalink structure.
         */
-       function get_tag_permastruct() {
-               if (isset($this->tag_structure)) {
-                       return $this->tag_structure;
-               }
-
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
-                       $this->tag_structure = '';
-                       return false;
-               }
-
-               if (empty($this->tag_base))
-                       $this->tag_structure = trailingslashit( $this->front . 'tag' );
-               else
-                       $this->tag_structure = trailingslashit( '/' . $this->root . $this->tag_base );
-
-               $this->tag_structure .= '%tag%';
-
-               return $this->tag_structure;
+       public function get_tag_permastruct() {
+               return $this->get_extra_permastruct('post_tag');
        }
 
        /**
         * Retrieve extra permalink structure by name.
         *
-        * @since unknown
+        * @since 2.5.0
         * @access public
         *
         * @param string $name Permalink structure name.
-        * @return string|bool False if not found. Permalink structure string.
+        * @return string|false False if not found. Permalink structure string.
         */
-       function get_extra_permastruct($name) {
+       public function get_extra_permastruct($name) {
+               if ( empty($this->permalink_structure) )
+                       return false;
+
                if ( isset($this->extra_permastructs[$name]) )
-                       return $this->extra_permastructs[$name];
+                       return $this->extra_permastructs[$name]['struct'];
+
                return false;
        }
 
@@ -1072,14 +1207,13 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return string|bool False if not found. Permalink structure string.
+        * @return string|false False if not found. Permalink structure string.
         */
-       function get_author_permastruct() {
-               if (isset($this->author_structure)) {
+       public function get_author_permastruct() {
+               if ( isset($this->author_structure) )
                        return $this->author_structure;
-               }
 
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
+               if ( empty($this->permalink_structure) ) {
                        $this->author_structure = '';
                        return false;
                }
@@ -1099,14 +1233,13 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return string|bool False if not found. Permalink structure string.
+        * @return string|false False if not found. Permalink structure string.
         */
-       function get_search_permastruct() {
-               if (isset($this->search_structure)) {
+       public function get_search_permastruct() {
+               if ( isset($this->search_structure) )
                        return $this->search_structure;
-               }
 
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
+               if ( empty($this->permalink_structure) ) {
                        $this->search_structure = '';
                        return false;
                }
@@ -1126,12 +1259,11 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return string|bool False if not found. Permalink structure string.
+        * @return string|false False if not found. Permalink structure string.
         */
-       function get_page_permastruct() {
-               if (isset($this->page_structure)) {
+       public function get_page_permastruct() {
+               if ( isset($this->page_structure) )
                        return $this->page_structure;
-               }
 
                if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
                        $this->page_structure = '';
@@ -1153,14 +1285,13 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return string|bool False if not found. Permalink structure string.
+        * @return string|false False if not found. Permalink structure string.
         */
-       function get_feed_permastruct() {
-               if (isset($this->feed_structure)) {
+       public function get_feed_permastruct() {
+               if ( isset($this->feed_structure) )
                        return $this->feed_structure;
-               }
 
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
+               if ( empty($this->permalink_structure) ) {
                        $this->feed_structure = '';
                        return false;
                }
@@ -1180,12 +1311,11 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return string|bool False if not found. Permalink structure string.
+        * @return string|false False if not found. Permalink structure string.
         */
-       function get_comment_feed_permastruct() {
-               if (isset($this->comment_feed_structure)) {
+       public function get_comment_feed_permastruct() {
+               if ( isset($this->comment_feed_structure) )
                        return $this->comment_feed_structure;
-               }
 
                if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
                        $this->comment_feed_structure = '';
@@ -1198,36 +1328,35 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
        }
 
        /**
-        * Append or update tag, pattern, and query for replacement.
+        * Add or update existing rewrite tags (e.g. %postname%).
         *
         * If the tag already exists, replace the existing pattern and query for
-        * that tag, otherwise add the new tag, pattern, and query to the end of the
-        * arrays.
-        *
-        * @internal What is the purpose of this function again? Need to finish long
-        *           description.
+        * that tag, otherwise add the new tag.
         *
+        * @see WP_Rewrite::$rewritecode
+        * @see WP_Rewrite::$rewritereplace
+        * @see WP_Rewrite::$queryreplace
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @param string $tag Append tag to rewritecode property array.
-        * @param string $pattern Append pattern to rewritereplace property array.
-        * @param string $query Append query to queryreplace property array.
+        * @param string $tag   Name of the rewrite tag to add or update.
+        * @param string $regex Regular expression to substitute the tag for in rewrite rules.
+        * @param string $query String to append to the rewritten query. Must end in '='.
         */
-       function add_rewrite_tag($tag, $pattern, $query) {
-               $position = array_search($tag, $this->rewritecode);
+       public function add_rewrite_tag( $tag, $regex, $query ) {
+               $position = array_search( $tag, $this->rewritecode );
                if ( false !== $position && null !== $position ) {
-                       $this->rewritereplace[$position] = $pattern;
-                       $this->queryreplace[$position] = $query;
+                       $this->rewritereplace[ $position ] = $regex;
+                       $this->queryreplace[ $position ] = $query;
                } else {
                        $this->rewritecode[] = $tag;
-                       $this->rewritereplace[] = $pattern;
+                       $this->rewritereplace[] = $regex;
                        $this->queryreplace[] = $query;
                }
        }
 
        /**
-        * Generate the rules from permalink structure.
+        * Generate rewrite rules from a permalink structure.
         *
         * The main WP_Rewrite function for building the rewrite rule list. The
         * contents of the function is a mix of black magic and regular expressions,
@@ -1237,38 +1366,39 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @access public
         *
         * @param string $permalink_structure The permalink structure.
-        * @param int $ep_mask Optional, default is EP_NONE. Endpoint constant, see EP_* constants.
-        * @param bool $paged Optional, default is true. Whether permalink request is paged.
-        * @param bool $feed Optional, default is true. Whether for feed.
-        * @param bool $forcomments Optional, default is false. Whether for comments.
-        * @param bool $walk_dirs Optional, default is true. Whether to create list of directories to walk over.
-        * @param bool $endpoints Optional, default is true. Whether endpoints are enabled.
+        * @param int    $ep_mask             Endpoint mask defining what endpoints are added to the structure. Default is EP_NONE.
+        * @param bool   $paged               Should archive pagination rules be added for the structure? Default is true.
+        * @param bool   $feed                Should feed rewrite rules be added for the structure? Default is true.
+        * @param bool   $forcomments         Should the feed rules be a query for a comments feed? Default is false.
+        * @param bool   $walk_dirs           Should the 'directories' making up the structure be walked over and rewrite rules
+        *                                    built for each in turn? Default is true.
+        * @param bool   $endpoints           Should endpoints be applied to the generated rewrite rules? Default is true.
         * @return array Rewrite rule list.
         */
-       function generate_rewrite_rules($permalink_structure, $ep_mask = EP_NONE, $paged = true, $feed = true, $forcomments = false, $walk_dirs = true, $endpoints = true) {
+       public function generate_rewrite_rules($permalink_structure, $ep_mask = EP_NONE, $paged = true, $feed = true, $forcomments = false, $walk_dirs = true, $endpoints = true) {
                //build a regex to match the feed section of URLs, something like (feed|atom|rss|rss2)/?
                $feedregex2 = '';
-               foreach ( (array) $this->feeds as $feed_name) {
+               foreach ( (array) $this->feeds as $feed_name)
                        $feedregex2 .= $feed_name . '|';
-               }
-               $feedregex2 = '(' . trim($feedregex2, '|') .  ')/?$';
+               $feedregex2 = '(' . trim($feedregex2, '|') . ')/?$';
+
                //$feedregex is identical but with /feed/ added on as well, so URLs like <permalink>/feed/atom
                //and <permalink>/atom are both possible
-               $feedregex = $this->feed_base  . '/' . $feedregex2;
+               $feedregex = $this->feed_base . '/' . $feedregex2;
 
                //build a regex to match the trackback and page/xx parts of URLs
                $trackbackregex = 'trackback/?$';
-               $pageregex = 'page/?([0-9]{1,})/?$';
-               $commentregex = 'comment-page-([0-9]{1,})/?$';
+               $pageregex = $this->pagination_base . '/?([0-9]{1,})/?$';
+               $commentregex = $this->comments_pagination_base . '-([0-9]{1,})/?$';
 
                //build up an array of endpoint regexes to append => queries to append
-               if ($endpoints) {
+               if ( $endpoints ) {
                        $ep_query_append = array ();
                        foreach ( (array) $this->endpoints as $endpoint) {
                                //match everything after the endpoint name, but allow for nothing to appear there
                                $epmatch = $endpoint[1] . '(/(.*))?/?$';
                                //this will be appended on to the rest of the query for each dir
-                               $epquery = '&' . $endpoint[1] . '=';
+                               $epquery = '&' . $endpoint[2] . '=';
                                $ep_query_append[$epmatch] = array ( $endpoint[0], $epquery );
                        }
                }
@@ -1285,12 +1415,12 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                $trackbackindex = $index;
                //build a list from the rewritecode and queryreplace arrays, that will look something like
                //tagname=$matches[i] where i is the current $i
-               for ($i = 0; $i < $num_tokens; ++$i) {
-                       if (0 < $i) {
+               $queries = array();
+               for ( $i = 0; $i < $num_tokens; ++$i ) {
+                       if ( 0 < $i )
                                $queries[$i] = $queries[$i - 1] . '&';
-                       } else {
+                       else
                                $queries[$i] = '';
-                       }
 
                        $query_token = str_replace($this->rewritecode, $this->queryreplace, $tokens[0][$i]) . $this->preg_index($i+1);
                        $queries[$i] .= $query_token;
@@ -1298,18 +1428,14 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
 
                //get the structure, minus any cruft (stuff that isn't tags) at the front
                $structure = $permalink_structure;
-               if ($front != '/') {
+               if ( $front != '/' )
                        $structure = str_replace($front, '', $structure);
-               }
+
                //create a list of dirs to walk over, making rewrite rules for each level
-               //so for example, a $structure of /%year%/%month%/%postname% would create
-               //rewrite rules for /%year%/, /%year%/%month%/ and /%year%/%month%/%postname%
+               //so for example, a $structure of /%year%/%monthnum%/%postname% would create
+               //rewrite rules for /%year%/, /%year%/%monthnum%/ and /%year%/%monthnum%/%postname%
                $structure = trim($structure, '/');
-               if ($walk_dirs) {
-                       $dirs = explode('/', $structure);
-               } else {
-                       $dirs[] = $structure;
-               }
+               $dirs = $walk_dirs ? explode('/', $structure) : array( $structure );
                $num_dirs = count($dirs);
 
                //strip slashes from the front of $front
@@ -1318,22 +1444,33 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                //the main workhorse loop
                $post_rewrite = array();
                $struct = $front;
-               for ($j = 0; $j < $num_dirs; ++$j) {
+               for ( $j = 0; $j < $num_dirs; ++$j ) {
                        //get the struct for this dir, and trim slashes off the front
                        $struct .= $dirs[$j] . '/'; //accumulate. see comment near explode('/', $structure) above
                        $struct = ltrim($struct, '/');
+
                        //replace tags with regexes
                        $match = str_replace($this->rewritecode, $this->rewritereplace, $struct);
+
                        //make a list of tags, and store how many there are in $num_toks
                        $num_toks = preg_match_all('/%.+?%/', $struct, $toks);
+
                        //get the 'tagname=$matches[i]'
-                       $query = ( isset($queries) && is_array($queries) ) ? $queries[$num_toks - 1] : '';
+                       $query = ( ! empty( $num_toks ) && isset( $queries[$num_toks - 1] ) ) ? $queries[$num_toks - 1] : '';
 
                        //set up $ep_mask_specific which is used to match more specific URL types
-                       switch ($dirs[$j]) {
-                               case '%year%': $ep_mask_specific = EP_YEAR; break;
-                               case '%monthnum%': $ep_mask_specific = EP_MONTH; break;
-                               case '%day%': $ep_mask_specific = EP_DAY; break;
+                       switch ( $dirs[$j] ) {
+                               case '%year%':
+                                       $ep_mask_specific = EP_YEAR;
+                                       break;
+                               case '%monthnum%':
+                                       $ep_mask_specific = EP_MONTH;
+                                       break;
+                               case '%day%':
+                                       $ep_mask_specific = EP_DAY;
+                                       break;
+                               default:
+                                       $ep_mask_specific = EP_NONE;
                        }
 
                        //create query for /page/xx
@@ -1344,6 +1481,12 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                        $commentmatch = $match . $commentregex;
                        $commentquery = $index . '?' . $query . '&cpage=' . $this->preg_index($num_toks + 1);
 
+                       if ( get_option('page_on_front') ) {
+                               //create query for Root /comment-page-xx
+                               $rootcommentmatch = $match . $commentregex;
+                               $rootcommentquery = $index . '?' . $query . '&page_id=' . get_option('page_on_front') . '&cpage=' . $this->preg_index($num_toks + 1);
+                       }
+
                        //create query for /feed/(feed|atom|rss|rss2|rdf)
                        $feedmatch = $match . $feedregex;
                        $feedquery = $feedindex . '?' . $query . '&feed=' . $this->preg_index($num_toks + 1);
@@ -1353,34 +1496,35 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                        $feedquery2 = $feedindex . '?' . $query . '&feed=' . $this->preg_index($num_toks + 1);
 
                        //if asked to, turn the feed queries into comment feed ones
-                       if ($forcomments) {
+                       if ( $forcomments ) {
                                $feedquery .= '&withcomments=1';
                                $feedquery2 .= '&withcomments=1';
                        }
 
                        //start creating the array of rewrites for this dir
                        $rewrite = array();
-                       if ($feed) //...adding on /feed/ regexes => queries
+                       if ( $feed ) //...adding on /feed/ regexes => queries
                                $rewrite = array($feedmatch => $feedquery, $feedmatch2 => $feedquery2);
-                       if ($paged) //...and /page/xx ones
+                       if ( $paged ) //...and /page/xx ones
                                $rewrite = array_merge($rewrite, array($pagematch => $pagequery));
 
                        //only on pages with comments add ../comment-page-xx/
-                       if ( EP_PAGES & $ep_mask || EP_PERMALINK & $ep_mask || EP_NONE & $ep_mask )
+                       if ( EP_PAGES & $ep_mask || EP_PERMALINK & $ep_mask ) {
                                $rewrite = array_merge($rewrite, array($commentmatch => $commentquery));
-
+                       } elseif ( EP_ROOT & $ep_mask && get_option('page_on_front') ) {
+                               $rewrite = array_merge($rewrite, array($rootcommentmatch => $rootcommentquery));
+                       }
                        //do endpoints
-                       if ($endpoints) {
+                       if ( $endpoints ) {
                                foreach ( (array) $ep_query_append as $regex => $ep) {
                                        //add the endpoints on if the mask fits
-                                       if ($ep[0] & $ep_mask || $ep[0] & $ep_mask_specific) {
+                                       if ( $ep[0] & $ep_mask || $ep[0] & $ep_mask_specific )
                                                $rewrite[$match . $regex] = $index . '?' . $query . $ep[1] . $this->preg_index($num_toks + 2);
-                                       }
                                }
                        }
 
                        //if we've got some tags in this dir
-                       if ($num_toks) {
+                       if ( $num_toks ) {
                                $post = false;
                                $page = false;
 
@@ -1388,24 +1532,36 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                                //individual post. Do this by checking it contains at least one of 1) post name,
                                //2) post ID, 3) page name, 4) timestamp (year, month, day, hour, second and
                                //minute all present). Set these flags now as we need them for the endpoints.
-                               if (strpos($struct, '%postname%') !== false || strpos($struct, '%post_id%') !== false
+                               if ( strpos($struct, '%postname%') !== false
+                                               || strpos($struct, '%post_id%') !== false
                                                || strpos($struct, '%pagename%') !== false
-                                               || (strpos($struct, '%year%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%monthnum%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%day%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%hour%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%minute%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%second%') !== false)) {
+                                               || (strpos($struct, '%year%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%monthnum%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%day%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%hour%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%minute%') !== false && strpos($struct, '%second%') !== false)
+                                               ) {
                                        $post = true;
-                                       if (strpos($struct, '%pagename%') !== false)
+                                       if ( strpos($struct, '%pagename%') !== false )
                                                $page = true;
                                }
 
+                               if ( ! $post ) {
+                                       // For custom post types, we need to add on endpoints as well.
+                                       foreach ( get_post_types( array('_builtin' => false ) ) as $ptype ) {
+                                               if ( strpos($struct, "%$ptype%") !== false ) {
+                                                       $post = true;
+                                                       $page = is_post_type_hierarchical( $ptype ); // This is for page style attachment url's
+                                                       break;
+                                               }
+                                       }
+                               }
+
                                //if we're creating rules for a permalink, do all the endpoints like attachments etc
-                               if ($post) {
-                                       $post = true;
+                               if ( $post ) {
                                        //create query and regex for trackback
                                        $trackbackmatch = $match . $trackbackregex;
                                        $trackbackquery = $trackbackindex . '?' . $query . '&tb=1';
                                        //trim slashes from the end of the regex for this dir
                                        $match = rtrim($match, '/');
                                        //get rid of brackets
-                                       $submatchbase = str_replace(array('(',')'),'',$match);
+                                       $submatchbase = str_replace( array('(', ')'), '', $match);
 
                                        //add a rule for at attachments, which take the form of <permalink>/some-text
                                        $sub1 = $submatchbase . '/([^/]+)/';
@@ -1413,8 +1569,6 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                                        $sub1feed = $sub1 . $feedregex; //and <permalink>/feed/(atom|...)
                                        $sub1feed2 = $sub1 . $feedregex2; //and <permalink>/(feed|atom...)
                                        $sub1comment = $sub1 . $commentregex; //and <permalink>/comment-page-xx
-                                       //add an ? as we don't have to match that last slash, and finally a $ so we
-                                       //match to the end of the URL
 
                                        //add another rule to match attachments in the explicit form:
                                        //<permalink>/attachment/some-text
@@ -1431,18 +1585,22 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                                        $subcommentquery = $subquery . '&cpage=' . $this->preg_index(2);
 
                                        //do endpoints for attachments
-                                       if ( !empty($endpoint) ) { foreach ( (array) $ep_query_append as $regex => $ep ) {
-                                               if ($ep[0] & EP_ATTACHMENT) {
-                                                       $rewrite[$sub1 . $regex] = $subquery . '?' . $ep[1] . $this->preg_index(2);
-                                                       $rewrite[$sub2 . $regex] = $subquery . '?' . $ep[1] . $this->preg_index(2);
+                                       if ( !empty($endpoints) ) {
+                                               foreach ( (array) $ep_query_append as $regex => $ep ) {
+                                                       if ( $ep[0] & EP_ATTACHMENT ) {
+                                                               $rewrite[$sub1 . $regex] = $subquery . $ep[1] . $this->preg_index(3);
+                                                               $rewrite[$sub2 . $regex] = $subquery . $ep[1] . $this->preg_index(3);
+                                                       }
                                                }
-                                       } }
+                                       }
 
                                        //now we've finished with endpoints, finish off the $sub1 and $sub2 matches
+                                       //add a ? as we don't have to match that last slash, and finally a $ so we
+                                       //match to the end of the URL
                                        $sub1 .= '?$';
                                        $sub2 .= '?$';
 
-                                       //allow URLs like <permalink>/2 for <permalink>/page/2
+                                       //post pagination, e.g. <permalink>/2/
                                        $match = $match . '(/[0-9]+)?/?$';
                                        $query = $index . '?' . $query . '&page=' . $this->preg_index($num_toks + 1);
                                } else { //not matching a permalink so this is a lot simpler
@@ -1457,7 +1615,7 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
                                $rewrite = array_merge($rewrite, array($match => $query));
 
                                //if we're matching a permalink, add those extras (attachments etc) on
-                               if ($post) {
+                               if ( $post ) {
                                        //add trackback
                                        $rewrite = array_merge(array($trackbackmatch => $trackbackquery), $rewrite);
 
@@ -1485,10 +1643,10 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @access public
         *
         * @param string $permalink_structure The permalink structure to generate rules.
-        * @param bool $walk_dirs Optional, default is false. Whether to create list of directories to walk over.
+        * @param bool   $walk_dirs           Optional, default is false. Whether to create list of directories to walk over.
         * @return array
         */
-       function generate_rewrite_rule($permalink_structure, $walk_dirs = false) {
+       public function generate_rewrite_rule($permalink_structure, $walk_dirs = false) {
                return $this->generate_rewrite_rules($permalink_structure, EP_NONE, false, false, false, $walk_dirs);
        }
 
@@ -1510,73 +1668,190 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @return array An associate array of matches and queries.
         */
-       function rewrite_rules() {
+       public function rewrite_rules() {
                $rewrite = array();
 
-               if (empty($this->permalink_structure)) {
+               if ( empty($this->permalink_structure) )
                        return $rewrite;
-               }
 
-               // robots.txt
-               $robots_rewrite = array('robots\.txt$' => $this->index . '?robots=1');
+               // robots.txt -only if installed at the root
+               $home_path = parse_url( home_url() );
+               $robots_rewrite = ( empty( $home_path['path'] ) || '/' == $home_path['path'] ) ? array( 'robots\.txt$' => $this->index . '?robots=1' ) : array();
+
+               // Old feed and service files
+               $deprecated_files = array(
+                       '.*wp-(atom|rdf|rss|rss2|feed|commentsrss2)\.php$' => $this->index . '?feed=old',
+                       '.*wp-app\.php(/.*)?$' => $this->index . '?error=403',
+               );
+
+               // Registration rules
+               $registration_pages = array();
+               if ( is_multisite() && is_main_site() ) {
+                       $registration_pages['.*wp-signup.php$'] = $this->index . '?signup=true';
+                       $registration_pages['.*wp-activate.php$'] = $this->index . '?activate=true';
+               }
+               $registration_pages['.*wp-register.php$'] = $this->index . '?register=true'; // Deprecated
 
-               //Default Feed rules - These are require to allow for the direct access files to work with permalink structure starting with %category%
-               $default_feeds = array( '.*wp-atom.php$'        =>      $this->index .'?feed=atom',
-                                                               '.*wp-rdf.php$' =>      $this->index .'?feed=rdf',
-                                                               '.*wp-rss.php$' =>      $this->index .'?feed=rss',
-                                                               '.*wp-rss2.php$'        =>      $this->index .'?feed=rss2',
-                                                               '.*wp-feed.php$'        =>      $this->index .'?feed=feed',
-                                                               '.*wp-commentsrss2.php$'        =>      $this->index . '?feed=rss2&withcomments=1');
+               // Post rewrite rules.
+               $post_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules( $this->permalink_structure, EP_PERMALINK );
 
-               // Post
-               $post_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($this->permalink_structure, EP_PERMALINK);
-               $post_rewrite = apply_filters('post_rewrite_rules', $post_rewrite);
+               /**
+                * Filter rewrite rules used for "post" archives.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param array $post_rewrite The rewrite rules for posts.
+                */
+               $post_rewrite = apply_filters( 'post_rewrite_rules', $post_rewrite );
 
-               // Date
+               // Date rewrite rules.
                $date_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($this->get_date_permastruct(), EP_DATE);
-               $date_rewrite = apply_filters('date_rewrite_rules', $date_rewrite);
 
-               // Root
+               /**
+                * Filter rewrite rules used for date archives.
+                *
+                * Likely date archives would include /yyyy/, /yyyy/mm/, and /yyyy/mm/dd/.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param array $date_rewrite The rewrite rules for date archives.
+                */
+               $date_rewrite = apply_filters( 'date_rewrite_rules', $date_rewrite );
+
+               // Root-level rewrite rules.
                $root_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($this->root . '/', EP_ROOT);
-               $root_rewrite = apply_filters('root_rewrite_rules', $root_rewrite);
 
-               // Comments
-               $comments_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($this->root . $this->comments_base, EP_COMMENTS, true, true, true, false);
-               $comments_rewrite = apply_filters('comments_rewrite_rules', $comments_rewrite);
-
-               // Search
+               /**
+                * Filter rewrite rules used for root-level archives.
+                *
+                * Likely root-level archives would include pagination rules for the homepage
+                * as well as site-wide post feeds (e.g. /feed/, and /feed/atom/).
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param array $root_rewrite The root-level rewrite rules.
+                */
+               $root_rewrite = apply_filters( 'root_rewrite_rules', $root_rewrite );
+
+               // Comments rewrite rules.
+               $comments_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($this->root . $this->comments_base, EP_COMMENTS, false, true, true, false);
+
+               /**
+                * Filter rewrite rules used for comment feed archives.
+                *
+                * Likely comments feed archives include /comments/feed/, and /comments/feed/atom/.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param array $comments_rewrite The rewrite rules for the site-wide comments feeds.
+                */
+               $comments_rewrite = apply_filters( 'comments_rewrite_rules', $comments_rewrite );
+
+               // Search rewrite rules.
                $search_structure = $this->get_search_permastruct();
                $search_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($search_structure, EP_SEARCH);
-               $search_rewrite = apply_filters('search_rewrite_rules', $search_rewrite);
-
-               // Categories
-               $category_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($this->get_category_permastruct(), EP_CATEGORIES);
-               $category_rewrite = apply_filters('category_rewrite_rules', $category_rewrite);
 
-               // Tags
-               $tag_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($this->get_tag_permastruct(), EP_TAGS);
-               $tag_rewrite = apply_filters('tag_rewrite_rules', $tag_rewrite);
-
-               // Authors
+               /**
+                * Filter rewrite rules used for search archives.
+                *
+                * Likely search-related archives include /search/search+query/ as well as
+                * pagination and feed paths for a search.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param array $search_rewrite The rewrite rules for search queries.
+                */
+               $search_rewrite = apply_filters( 'search_rewrite_rules', $search_rewrite );
+
+               // Author rewrite rules.
                $author_rewrite = $this->generate_rewrite_rules($this->get_author_permastruct(), EP_AUTHORS);
-               $author_rewrite = apply_filters('author_rewrite_rules', $author_rewrite);
 
-               // Pages
+               /**
+                * Filter rewrite rules used for author archives.
+                *
+                * Likely author archives would include /author/author-name/, as well as
+                * pagination and feed paths for author archives.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param array $author_rewrite The rewrite rules for author archives.
+                */
+               $author_rewrite = apply_filters( 'author_rewrite_rules', $author_rewrite );
+
+               // Pages rewrite rules.
                $page_rewrite = $this->page_rewrite_rules();
-               $page_rewrite = apply_filters('page_rewrite_rules', $page_rewrite);
 
-               // Extra permastructs
-               foreach ( $this->extra_permastructs as $permastruct )
-                       $this->extra_rules_top = array_merge($this->extra_rules_top, $this->generate_rewrite_rules($permastruct, EP_NONE));
+               /**
+                * Filter rewrite rules used for "page" post type archives.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param array $page_rewrite The rewrite rules for the "page" post type.
+                */
+               $page_rewrite = apply_filters( 'page_rewrite_rules', $page_rewrite );
+
+               // Extra permastructs.
+               foreach ( $this->extra_permastructs as $permastructname => $struct ) {
+                       if ( is_array( $struct ) ) {
+                               if ( count( $struct ) == 2 )
+                                       $rules = $this->generate_rewrite_rules( $struct[0], $struct[1] );
+                               else
+                                       $rules = $this->generate_rewrite_rules( $struct['struct'], $struct['ep_mask'], $struct['paged'], $struct['feed'], $struct['forcomments'], $struct['walk_dirs'], $struct['endpoints'] );
+                       } else {
+                               $rules = $this->generate_rewrite_rules( $struct );
+                       }
+
+                       /**
+                        * Filter rewrite rules used for individual permastructs.
+                        *
+                        * The dynamic portion of the hook name, `$permastructname`, refers
+                        * to the name of the registered permastruct, e.g. 'post_tag' (tags),
+                        * 'category' (categories), etc.
+                        *
+                        * @since 3.1.0
+                        *
+                        * @param array $rules The rewrite rules generated for the current permastruct.
+                        */
+                       $rules = apply_filters( $permastructname . '_rewrite_rules', $rules );
+                       if ( 'post_tag' == $permastructname ) {
+
+                               /**
+                                * Filter rewrite rules used specifically for Tags.
+                                *
+                                * @since 2.3.0
+                                * @deprecated 3.1.0 Use 'post_tag_rewrite_rules' instead
+                                *
+                                * @param array $rules The rewrite rules generated for tags.
+                                */
+                               $rules = apply_filters( 'tag_rewrite_rules', $rules );
+                       }
+
+                       $this->extra_rules_top = array_merge($this->extra_rules_top, $rules);
+               }
 
                // Put them together.
                if ( $this->use_verbose_page_rules )
-                       $this->rules = array_merge($this->extra_rules_top, $robots_rewrite, $default_feeds, $page_rewrite, $root_rewrite, $comments_rewrite, $search_rewrite, $category_rewrite, $tag_rewrite, $author_rewrite, $date_rewrite, $post_rewrite, $this->extra_rules);
+                       $this->rules = array_merge($this->extra_rules_top, $robots_rewrite, $deprecated_files, $registration_pages, $root_rewrite, $comments_rewrite, $search_rewrite,  $author_rewrite, $date_rewrite, $page_rewrite, $post_rewrite, $this->extra_rules);
                else
-                       $this->rules = array_merge($this->extra_rules_top, $robots_rewrite, $default_feeds, $root_rewrite, $comments_rewrite, $search_rewrite, $category_rewrite, $tag_rewrite, $author_rewrite, $date_rewrite, $post_rewrite, $page_rewrite, $this->extra_rules);
-
-               do_action_ref_array('generate_rewrite_rules', array(&$this));
-               $this->rules = apply_filters('rewrite_rules_array', $this->rules);
+                       $this->rules = array_merge($this->extra_rules_top, $robots_rewrite, $deprecated_files, $registration_pages, $root_rewrite, $comments_rewrite, $search_rewrite,  $author_rewrite, $date_rewrite, $post_rewrite, $page_rewrite, $this->extra_rules);
+
+               /**
+                * Fires after the rewrite rules are generated.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param WP_Rewrite $this Current WP_Rewrite instance, passed by reference.
+                */
+               do_action_ref_array( 'generate_rewrite_rules', array( &$this ) );
+
+               /**
+                * Filter the full set of generated rewrite rules.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param array $this->rules The compiled array of rewrite rules.
+                */
+               $this->rules = apply_filters( 'rewrite_rules_array', $this->rules );
 
                return $this->rules;
        }
@@ -1595,7 +1870,7 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @return array Rewrite rules.
         */
-       function wp_rewrite_rules() {
+       public function wp_rewrite_rules() {
                $this->rules = get_option('rewrite_rules');
                if ( empty($this->rules) ) {
                        $this->matches = 'matches';
@@ -1612,7 +1887,7 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * Does not actually write to the .htaccess file, but creates the rules for
         * the process that will.
         *
-        * Will add  the non_wp_rules property rules to the .htaccess file before
+        * Will add the non_wp_rules property rules to the .htaccess file before
         * the WordPress rewrite rules one.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
@@ -1620,26 +1895,24 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @return string
         */
-       function mod_rewrite_rules() {
-               if ( ! $this->using_permalinks()) {
+       public function mod_rewrite_rules() {
+               if ( ! $this->using_permalinks() )
                        return '';
-               }
 
-               $site_root = parse_url(get_option('siteurl'));
-               if ( isset( $site_root['path'] ) ) {
+               $site_root = parse_url( site_url() );
+               if ( isset( $site_root['path'] ) )
                        $site_root = trailingslashit($site_root['path']);
-               }
 
-               $home_root = parse_url(get_option('home'));
-               if ( isset( $home_root['path'] ) ) {
+               $home_root = parse_url(home_url());
+               if ( isset( $home_root['path'] ) )
                        $home_root = trailingslashit($home_root['path']);
-               } else {
+               else
                        $home_root = '/';
-               }
 
                $rules = "<IfModule mod_rewrite.c>\n";
                $rules .= "RewriteEngine On\n";
                $rules .= "RewriteBase $home_root\n";
+               $rules .= "RewriteRule ^index\.php$ - [L]\n"; // Prevent -f checks on index.php.
 
                //add in the rules that don't redirect to WP's index.php (and thus shouldn't be handled by WP at all)
                foreach ( (array) $this->non_wp_rules as $match => $query) {
@@ -1648,14 +1921,14 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
 
                        // If the match is unanchored and greedy, prepend rewrite conditions
                        // to avoid infinite redirects and eclipsing of real files.
-                       if ($match == '(.+)/?$' || $match == '([^/]+)/?$' ) {
+                       //if ($match == '(.+)/?$' || $match == '([^/]+)/?$' ) {
                                //nada.
-                       }
+                       //}
 
                        $rules .= 'RewriteRule ^' . $match . ' ' . $home_root . $query . " [QSA,L]\n";
                }
 
-               if ($this->use_verbose_rules) {
+               if ( $this->use_verbose_rules ) {
                        $this->matches = '';
                        $rewrite = $this->rewrite_rules();
                        $num_rules = count($rewrite);
@@ -1669,15 +1942,14 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
 
                                // If the match is unanchored and greedy, prepend rewrite conditions
                                // to avoid infinite redirects and eclipsing of real files.
-                               if ($match == '(.+)/?$' || $match == '([^/]+)/?$' ) {
+                               //if ($match == '(.+)/?$' || $match == '([^/]+)/?$' ) {
                                        //nada.
-                               }
+                               //}
 
-                               if (strpos($query, $this->index) !== false) {
+                               if ( strpos($query, $this->index) !== false )
                                        $rules .= 'RewriteRule ^' . $match . ' ' . $home_root . $query . " [QSA,L]\n";
-                               } else {
+                               else
                                        $rules .= 'RewriteRule ^' . $match . ' ' . $site_root . $query . " [QSA,L]\n";
-                               }
                        }
                } else {
                        $rules .= "RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f\n" .
@@ -1687,10 +1959,75 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
 
                $rules .= "</IfModule>\n";
 
-               $rules = apply_filters('mod_rewrite_rules', $rules);
-               $rules = apply_filters('rewrite_rules', $rules);  // Deprecated
+               /**
+                *
+                * Filter the list of rewrite rules formatted for output to an .htaccess file.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                *
+                * @param string $rules mod_rewrite Rewrite rules formatted for .htaccess.
+                */
+               $rules = apply_filters( 'mod_rewrite_rules', $rules );
+
+               /**
+                * Filter the list of rewrite rules formatted for output to an .htaccess file.
+                *
+                * @since 1.5.0
+                * @deprecated 1.5.0 Use the mod_rewrite_rules filter instead.
+                *
+                * @param string $rules mod_rewrite Rewrite rules formatted for .htaccess.
+                */
+               return apply_filters( 'rewrite_rules', $rules );
+       }
 
-               return $rules;
+       /**
+        * Retrieve IIS7 URL Rewrite formatted rewrite rules to write to web.config file.
+        *
+        * Does not actually write to the web.config file, but creates the rules for
+        * the process that will.
+        *
+        * @since 2.8.0
+        * @access public
+        *
+        * @return string
+        */
+       public function iis7_url_rewrite_rules( $add_parent_tags = false ) {
+               if ( ! $this->using_permalinks() )
+                       return '';
+               $rules = '';
+               if ( $add_parent_tags ) {
+                       $rules .= '<configuration>
+       <system.webServer>
+               <rewrite>
+                       <rules>';
+               }
+
+               $rules .= '
+                       <rule name="wordpress" patternSyntax="Wildcard">
+                               <match url="*" />
+                                       <conditions>
+                                               <add input="{REQUEST_FILENAME}" matchType="IsFile" negate="true" />
+                                               <add input="{REQUEST_FILENAME}" matchType="IsDirectory" negate="true" />
+                                       </conditions>
+                               <action type="Rewrite" url="index.php" />
+                       </rule>';
+
+               if ( $add_parent_tags ) {
+                       $rules .= '
+                       </rules>
+               </rewrite>
+       </system.webServer>
+</configuration>';
+               }
+
+               /**
+                * Filter the list of rewrite rules formatted for output to a web.config.
+                *
+                * @since 2.8.0
+                *
+                * @param string $rules Rewrite rules formatted for IIS web.config.
+                */
+               return apply_filters( 'iis7_url_rewrite_rules', $rules );
        }
 
        /**
@@ -1702,15 +2039,15 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 2.1.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @param string $regex Regular expression to match against request.
+        * @param string $regex    Regular expression to match against request.
         * @param string $redirect URL regex redirects to when regex matches request.
-        * @param string $after Optional, default is bottom. Location to place rule.
+        * @param string $after    Optional, default is bottom. Location to place rule.
         */
-       function add_rule($regex, $redirect, $after = 'bottom') {
+       public function add_rule($regex, $redirect, $after = 'bottom') {
                //get everything up to the first ?
-               $index = (strpos($redirect, '?') == false ? strlen($redirect) : strpos($redirect, '?'));
+               $index = (strpos($redirect, '?') === false ? strlen($redirect) : strpos($redirect, '?'));
                $front = substr($redirect, 0, $index);
-               if ($front != $this->index) { //it doesn't redirect to WP's index.php
+               if ( $front != $this->index ) { //it doesn't redirect to WP's index.php
                        $this->add_external_rule($regex, $redirect);
                } else {
                        if ( 'bottom' == $after)
@@ -1729,47 +2066,99 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * @since 2.1.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @param string $regex Regular expression to match against request.
+        * @param string $regex    Regular expression to match against request.
         * @param string $redirect URL regex redirects to when regex matches request.
         */
-       function add_external_rule($regex, $redirect) {
+       public function add_external_rule($regex, $redirect) {
                $this->non_wp_rules[$regex] = $redirect;
        }
 
        /**
         * Add an endpoint, like /trackback/.
         *
-        * To be inserted after certain URL types (specified in $places).
-        *
         * @since 2.1.0
+        * @since 3.9.0 $query_var parameter added.
+        * @since 4.3.0 Added support for skipping query var registration by passing `false` to `$query_var`.
         * @access public
         *
-        * @param string $name Name of endpoint.
-        * @param array $places URL types that endpoint can be used.
+        * @see add_rewrite_endpoint() for full documentation.
+        *
+        * @global WP $wp
+        *
+        * @param string      $name      Name of the endpoint.
+        * @param int         $places    Endpoint mask describing the places the endpoint should be added.
+        * @param string|bool $query_var Optional. Name of the corresponding query variable. Pass `false` to
+        *                               skip registering a query_var for this endpoint. Defaults to the
+        *                               value of `$name`.
         */
-       function add_endpoint($name, $places) {
+       public function add_endpoint( $name, $places, $query_var = true ) {
                global $wp;
-               $this->endpoints[] = array ( $places, $name );
-               $wp->add_query_var($name);
+
+               // For backward compatibility, if `null` has explicitly been passed as `$query_var`, assume `true`.
+               if ( true === $query_var || null === func_get_arg( 2 ) ) {
+                       $query_var = $name;
+               }
+               $this->endpoints[] = array( $places, $name, $query_var );
+
+               if ( $query_var ) {
+                       $wp->add_query_var( $query_var );
+               }
        }
 
        /**
-        * Add permalink structure.
+        * Add a new permalink structure.
+        *
+        * A permalink structure (permastruct) is an abstract definition of a set of rewrite rules; it
+        * is an easy way of expressing a set of regular expressions that rewrite to a set of query strings.
+        * The new permastruct is added to the {@link WP_Rewrite::$extra_permastructs} array. When the
+        * rewrite rules are built by {@link WP_Rewrite::rewrite_rules()} all of these extra permastructs
+        * are passed to {@link WP_Rewrite::generate_rewrite_rules()} which transforms them into the
+        * regular expressions that many love to hate.
         *
-        * These are added along with the extra rewrite rules that are merged to the
-        * top.
+        * The $args parameter gives you control over how {@link WP_Rewrite::generate_rewrite_rules()}
+        * works on the new permastruct.
         *
-        * @since unknown
+        * @since 2.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @param string $name Name for permalink structure.
-        * @param string $struct Permalink structure.
-        * @param bool $with_front Prepend front base to permalink structure.
-        */
-       function add_permastruct($name, $struct, $with_front = true) {
-               if ( $with_front )
+        * @param string $name   Name for permalink structure.
+        * @param string $struct Permalink structure (e.g. category/%category%)
+        * @param array  $args   Optional configuration for building the rules from the permalink structure:
+        *     - with_front (bool) - Should the structure be prepended with WP_Rewrite::$front? Default is true.
+        *     - ep_mask (int) - Endpoint mask defining what endpoints are added to the structure. Default is EP_NONE.
+        *     - paged (bool) - Should archive pagination rules be added for the structure? Default is true.
+        *     - feed (bool) - Should feed rewrite rules be added for the structure? Default is true.
+        *     - forcomments (bool) - Should the feed rules be a query for a comments feed? Default is false.
+        *     - walk_dirs (bool) - Should the 'directories' making up the structure be walked over and rewrite
+        *                          rules built for each in turn? Default is true.
+        *     - endpoints (bool) - Should endpoints be applied to the generated rewrite rules? Default is true.
+        */
+       public function add_permastruct( $name, $struct, $args = array() ) {
+               // backwards compatibility for the old parameters: $with_front and $ep_mask
+               if ( ! is_array( $args ) )
+                       $args = array( 'with_front' => $args );
+               if ( func_num_args() == 4 )
+                       $args['ep_mask'] = func_get_arg( 3 );
+
+               $defaults = array(
+                       'with_front' => true,
+                       'ep_mask' => EP_NONE,
+                       'paged' => true,
+                       'feed' => true,
+                       'forcomments' => false,
+                       'walk_dirs' => true,
+                       'endpoints' => true,
+               );
+               $args = array_intersect_key( $args, $defaults );
+               $args = wp_parse_args( $args, $defaults );
+
+               if ( $args['with_front'] )
                        $struct = $this->front . $struct;
-               $this->extra_permastructs[$name] = $struct;
+               else
+                       $struct = $this->root . $struct;
+               $args['struct'] = $struct;
+
+               $this->extra_permastructs[ $name ] = $args;
        }
 
        /**
@@ -1781,51 +2170,73 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @since 2.0.1
         * @access public
+        *
+        * @staticvar bool $do_hard_later
+        *
+        * @param bool $hard Whether to update .htaccess (hard flush) or just update rewrite_rules option (soft flush). Default is true (hard).
         */
-       function flush_rules() {
+       public function flush_rules( $hard = true ) {
+               static $do_hard_later = null;
+
+               // Prevent this action from running before everyone has registered their rewrites
+               if ( ! did_action( 'wp_loaded' ) ) {
+                       add_action( 'wp_loaded', array( $this, 'flush_rules' ) );
+                       $do_hard_later = ( isset( $do_hard_later ) ) ? $do_hard_later || $hard : $hard;
+                       return;
+               }
+
+               if ( isset( $do_hard_later ) ) {
+                       $hard = $do_hard_later;
+                       unset( $do_hard_later );
+               }
+
                delete_option('rewrite_rules');
                $this->wp_rewrite_rules();
-               if ( function_exists('save_mod_rewrite_rules') )
+               /**
+                * Filter whether a "hard" rewrite rule flush should be performed when requested.
+                *
+                * A "hard" flush updates .htaccess (Apache) or web.config (IIS).
+                *
+                * @since 3.7.0
+                *
+                * @param bool $hard Whether to flush rewrite rules "hard". Default true.
+                */
+               if ( ! $hard || ! apply_filters( 'flush_rewrite_rules_hard', true ) ) {
+                       return;
+               }
+               if ( function_exists( 'save_mod_rewrite_rules' ) )
                        save_mod_rewrite_rules();
+               if ( function_exists( 'iis7_save_url_rewrite_rules' ) )
+                       iis7_save_url_rewrite_rules();
        }
 
        /**
         * Sets up the object's properties.
         *
-        * The 'use_verbose_page_rules' object property will be turned on, if the
-        * permalink structure includes the following: '%postname%', '%category%',
+        * The 'use_verbose_page_rules' object property will be set to true if the
+        * permalink structure begins with one of the following: '%postname%', '%category%',
         * '%tag%', or '%author%'.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         */
-       function init() {
+       public function init() {
                $this->extra_rules = $this->non_wp_rules = $this->endpoints = array();
                $this->permalink_structure = get_option('permalink_structure');
                $this->front = substr($this->permalink_structure, 0, strpos($this->permalink_structure, '%'));
                $this->root = '';
-               if ($this->using_index_permalinks()) {
+               if ( $this->using_index_permalinks() )
                        $this->root = $this->index . '/';
-               }
-               $this->category_base = get_option( 'category_base' );
-               $this->tag_base = get_option( 'tag_base' );
-               unset($this->category_structure);
                unset($this->author_structure);
                unset($this->date_structure);
                unset($this->page_structure);
                unset($this->search_structure);
                unset($this->feed_structure);
                unset($this->comment_feed_structure);
-               $this->use_trailing_slashes = ( substr($this->permalink_structure, -1, 1) == '/' ) ? true : false;
+               $this->use_trailing_slashes = ( '/' == substr($this->permalink_structure, -1, 1) );
 
                // Enable generic rules for pages if permalink structure doesn't begin with a wildcard.
-               $structure = ltrim($this->permalink_structure, '/');
-               if ( $this->using_index_permalinks() )
-                       $structure = ltrim($this->permalink_structure, $this->index . '/');
-               if ( 0 === strpos($structure, '%postname%') ||
-                        0 === strpos($structure, '%category%') ||
-                        0 === strpos($structure, '%tag%') ||
-                        0 === strpos($structure, '%author%') )
+               if ( preg_match("/^[^%]*%(?:postname|category|tag|author)%/", $this->permalink_structure) )
                         $this->use_verbose_page_rules = true;
                else
                        $this->use_verbose_page_rules = false;
@@ -1838,15 +2249,29 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         * between the current permalink structure and the parameter value. Calls
         * {@link WP_Rewrite::init()} after the option is updated.
         *
+        * Fires the 'permalink_structure_changed' action once the init call has
+        * processed passing the old and new values
+        *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
         * @param string $permalink_structure Permalink structure.
         */
-       function set_permalink_structure($permalink_structure) {
-               if ($permalink_structure != $this->permalink_structure) {
+       public function set_permalink_structure($permalink_structure) {
+               if ( $permalink_structure != $this->permalink_structure ) {
+                       $old_permalink_structure = $this->permalink_structure;
                        update_option('permalink_structure', $permalink_structure);
                        $this->init();
+
+                       /**
+                        * Fires after the permalink structure is updated.
+                        *
+                        * @since 2.8.0
+                        *
+                        * @param string $old_permalink_structure The previous permalink structure.
+                        * @param string $permalink_structure     The new permalink structure.
+                        */
+                       do_action( 'permalink_structure_changed', $old_permalink_structure, $permalink_structure );
                }
        }
 
@@ -1862,8 +2287,8 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @param string $category_base Category permalink structure base.
         */
-       function set_category_base($category_base) {
-               if ($category_base != $this->category_base) {
+       public function set_category_base($category_base) {
+               if ( $category_base != get_option('category_base') ) {
                        update_option('category_base', $category_base);
                        $this->init();
                }
@@ -1881,24 +2306,21 @@ class WP_Rewrite {
         *
         * @param string $tag_base Tag permalink structure base.
         */
-       function set_tag_base( $tag_base ) {
-               if ( $tag_base != $this->tag_base ) {
+       public function set_tag_base( $tag_base ) {
+               if ( $tag_base != get_option( 'tag_base') ) {
                        update_option( 'tag_base', $tag_base );
                        $this->init();
                }
        }
 
        /**
-        * PHP4 Constructor - Calls init(), which runs setup.
+        * Constructor - Calls init(), which runs setup.
         *
         * @since 1.5.0
         * @access public
         *
-        * @return WP_Rewrite
         */
-       function WP_Rewrite() {
+       public function __construct() {
                $this->init();
        }
 }
-
-?>